Thursday, October 11, 2018

Mary Had a Little Lamb

Image result for denslow mary had a little lamb
I suppose "Mary Had a Little Lamb" is one of the first songs many English-speaking kids learn. It was the first real song I learned in piano lessons. It was famously recited on Thomas Edison's first phonograph recording in 1877.

The poem was published by educator and writer Sarah Josepha Hale as part of a collection of children's verses in 1830. She had been encouraged to produce this volume by Lowell Mason, the composer and music educator who is considered the founder of school music education in the United States. He was specifically in search of material he could set to music for instruction, and he included "Mary's Lamb" in his Juvenile Lyre, Or, Hymns and Songs, Religious, Moral, and Cheerful, Set to Appropriate Music, For the Use of Primary and Common Schools. This songbook was used in Boston public schools and was probably the first such collection in the United States. Hale's verse is reportedly based on the true story of Mary Sawyer, who took her lamb to school in the vicinity of Sterling Massachusetts, which, subsequent to the song's success, has erected a statue in her honor.

Image result for lowell mason mary had a little lamb
"Mary's Lamb," with music by Lowell Mason from the Juvenile Lyre, 1831,
Lowell's tune, which is in a somewhat pedantic style resembling that of church music in early America, did not really catch on. The tune that is familiar to us today--more directly appealing, vernacular, simple, and folk-like--became attached to the words in 1868 when H.R. Waite borrowed it from the chorus of E.P. Christy's "Goodnight Ladies" (the original words were "Merrily We Roll Along"). That's E.P. Christy of the famous Christy Minstrels. Like so many songs that have become standards of the children's music repertoire, "Mary Had a Little Lamb" has a tune with roots in blackface minstrelsy. This tune is so simple as to read like an exposition of the building blocks of music. The melody is almost entirely confined to the first three notes of the scale (Do, Re, Mi, easy as One, Two, Three) except for a brief leap up to scale degree five at the end of the first phrase. Even this motion outlines the major third characteristic of much children's music and the pentatonic scale considered natural to children's musical senses.


Boston Literary History

Pound, Gomer. "Mason's Hand in "Mary's Lamb"." The Bulletin of Historical Research in Music Education 7, no. 1 (1986): 23-27.

Richards Free Library

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